Present Perfect

Le present perfect se construit avec l’auxiliaire avoir (have ou has) et le verbe au participe passé:

Pour le participe passé on ajoute ed aux verbes réguliers. Pour les verbes irrégulier on utilise la troisième forme du tableau:

Exemples:

You have eaten all the cake. She has lived in London for 4 years.

On contracte souvent le sujet et have ou has:

I have –> I’ve, You have –> You’ve, He has –> He’s, She has –> She’s, It has –> It’s, We have –> We’ve, They have –> They’ve.

Le present perfect s’emploi dans deux contextes:

  • Pour les choses qui viennent de se produire : « just now » (à l’instant)

« I have finished » (just now) –> J’ai fini (à l’instant)

« You have arrived » –> tu es arrivé

« She has left » –> Elle est partie

  • Pour les bilans, ce qu’on a fait jusqu’à présent. Ce contexte s’accompagne souvent de since ou for. (depuis et pendant)

« I have lived in Antibes since 2014. » –> Je vis à Antibes depuis 2014

« You have studied English for 5 years » –> Tu as étudié l’anglais pendant 5 ans.

Une petite particularité importante

She has gone to Italy = Elle est partie en Italie (elle y est toujours)

She has been to Italy = Elle a été en Italie (maintenant elle est rentrée)

Pour les phrases négatives on utilise not:

  • have –> haven’t (have not)
  • has –> hasn’t (has not)

« I haven’t seen this movie. »

« She hasn’t called »

« They haven’t finished »

Pour les questions on inverse le sujet avec have ou has:

  • Have you seen this movie? (as-tu vu ce film?)
  • Has she finished? (A-t-elle terminé?)

Pour les questions ouvertes on ajoute au début: what, where, when, who, why, how much, how many.

  • What have you done? (Qu’as-tu fait?)
  • Where has she gone? (Où est elle allée?)

Voici quelques exercices pour vous familiariser avec le present perfect:

Exercice 1 : Construisez une phrase au present perfect avec le verbe indiqué.

  1. I _____have_______ ________finished________ ! (to finish)
  2. You ____________ ________________ early… (to leave)
  3. She ______________ _________________ . (to arrive)
  4. I ___________ _______________ English since 2012. (to teach)
  5. Mr Smith ___________ _____________ . (to call)
  6. I’m sorry, I _____________ ________________ the vase. (to break)
  7. They __________ ______________ in Cannes for 5 months. (to live)
  8. Mr and Mrs Potter ____________ ________________ married for 5 years. (to be)
  9. We _____________ _________________ a taxi. (to take)
  10. You ____________ ________________ all the wine! (to drink)
  11. He ____________ __________________ all the countries in Europe! (to visit)
  12. I ______________ never ________________ a helicopter. (to fly)
  13. The King ____________ _______________. (to speak)
  14. She ___________ ________________ 4 languages! (to learn)
  15. They _______________ _____________ to Italy (To go)
  16. She ___________ _________________ for 30 minutes. (to sleep)

Exercice 2 Choisissez le bon verbe: Gone, ou Been

  1. I have ____________ to Italy 5 times.
  2. I have ______________ to Italy. I will come back on Tuesday.
  3. They have ______________ to live in England. I will miss them.
  4. She has ______________ to many countries. She loves to travel.
  5. He’s _____________ to the supermarket. Can I take a message?
  6. I’ve __________ to the doctor. He prescribed rest so I’m taking a nap.
  7. He’s _____________ to bed, he was tired.

Exercice 3 Formez des questions au Present perfect en utilisant les verbes

  1. ____Have_________ you _______seen_________ Bobby? (to see)
  2. Where ____________ he ________________ ? (to go)
  3. What ___________ you ________________ today? (to do)
  4. __________ you ________________? (to eat)
  5. What ___________ they ________________ ? (to visit)
  6. __________ he ____________ to Italy? (to be)
  7. How many times __________ you ______________ skiing? (to be)
  8. ___________ we ______________ yet? (to finish)
  9. Why __________ he __________________ ? (to leave)
  10. __________ you _____________ the news? (to hear)

Exercice 4 Formez des phrases au present perfect négatif.

  1. I __haven’t_________ ____finished_________. (to finish)
  2. She _______________ _________________ the bus. (to take)
  3. We _______________ ________________ our promise!! (to forget)
  4. She ______________ ______________ any short stories. (to write)
  5. I _________ _________________ very well today.
  6. We _____________ _____________ much time. (to have)
  7. He _____________ ______________ much money. (to spend)

Exercice 5 complétez l’histoire avec le bon verbe

List of things I have done in my life:

  1. I have _____________ a helicopter
  2. I’ve _____________ many countries
  3. I’ve _____________ the Mona Lisa
  4. I’ve _____________ the lottery
  5. I’ve _____________ all Victor Hugo
  6. I’ve _____________ under the stars
  7. I’ve _____________ Chinese
  8. I’ve _____________ a big house on the Cap d’Antibes.

Verbes : to learn, to see, to read, to visit, to sleep, to fly, to win, to buy.